All in all, dos,260 citizens of your society was indeed randomly selected of Lebanon’s districts inside the a great proportionate rate

Studies Structure and Players

So it get across-sectional study is used between . Districts is actually divided in to subdistricts, being divided in to villages. We chosen dos communities per subdistrict out-of a list available with the Central Agencies regarding Statistics in the Lebanon. The questionnaire try distributed randomly to help you homes considering a random-testing strategy. 32 Individuals who provided to participate in the analysis had been welcome to-do the fresh new survey via a face-to-face interviews. Most of the some body old > 18 many years had been permitted take part. People with cognitive handicap and people who would not complete the questionnaire have been excluded. Investigation collection was did by the investigation-separate teams.

Minimal Sample Proportions Formula

Based on the formula \[n = <(Z_<1-?/dos>)^2 p(1-p) \over d^2>\] wherein n = size of the sample, P = expected proportion, d = the desired margin of error, and Z1??/2 = 1.96 for ? = 5%, a minimal sample of 1,152 participants was needed based on a P = 50% expected frequency of nomophobia in the absence of similar studies, a d = 5% risk of error, and a design effect of 3.


The fresh new questionnaire utilized for the interview was a student in Arabic, the brand new local language regarding Lebanon. The first a portion of the questionnaire reviewed the latest sociodemographic features from the participants (decades, level of pupils, intercourse, studies level, socioeconomic peak, and you will marital position). Smoking are assessed of the reacting “yes” on question, “Will you be a current smoker?” towards requirements this integrated smoking at least step one waterpipe or tobacco cigarette in earlier times 30 days. Questions relating to the kind of smoke smoked (smoking cigarettes, waterpipe), exactly how many smokes smoked every day, and also the level of waterpipes smoked each week had been in addition to expected. Players just who did not satisfy step 1 ones 2 requirements was basically thought nonsmokers. Another area of the survey consisted of the following tips.

Nomophobia Questionnaire

The new Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) is actually good 20-item size 21 which is confirmed from inside the Lebanon. 33 Products are scored based on an excellent eight-part Likert level, that have step one = do not consent after all and seven = firmly concur. Large score suggest higher nomophobia. The latest Cronbach ? for it size was sophisticated (? = 0.948). Brand new NMP-Q doesn’t always have a good cutoff area. The complete get yielded 4 types of members which had no nomophobia (countless 20), lighter nomophobia (results between 21 and 59), modest nomophobia (results anywhere between sixty and you can 99), and you can serious nomophobia (results between 100 and you may 140).

Identification List getting DSM-5

The fresh new mature type of the new Character Inventory having DSM-5 brief means was validated for the Arabic 34 possesses 25 items that assess the 5 character feature domain names: negative affect (requires the exposure to negative thinking; products 8, nine, 10, 11, 15), withdrawal (a state of depression, mistrust; situations cuatro, 13, 14, 16, 18), antagonism (personal withdrawal, grandiosity; things 17, 19, 20, 22, 25), disinhibition (are spontaneous, reckless, careless; facts 1, dos, step 3, 5, 6), and you will psychoticism (with weird behaviors and you may perceptual trouble; facts seven, 12, 21, 23, 24). It tool is employed for people old ? 18 years. The brand new responses may include really incorrect (scale = 0) to help you extremely correct (size = 3). 35 Highest ratings imply higher description regarding particular personality characteristic website name. The new Cronbach ? for this scale are higher level ( want gypsy dating site? = 0.943).

NEO Four-Basis Directory

The fresh new NEO Four-Factor Directory (NEO-FFI) was an effective 60-items questionnaire one to analyzes each of the 5 earliest identity proportions (12 issues per domain): neuroticism, extraversion, visibility playing, agreeableness, and you will conscientiousness. 36 The newest Arabic particular the latest NEO-FFI was used. 37 Items are answered with the good 5-section Likert measure out of highly differ to help you firmly concur. Each facet get try computed from the summing new solutions to all the the questions of your own aspect. The fresh Cronbach ? for it measure was advanced (? = 0.963) once the are one into the various other subscales: neuroticism (? = 0.895), extraversion (? = 0.707), transparency to experience (? = 0.923), agreeableness (? = 0.920), and you may conscientiousness (? = 0.931). Highest scores indicate a more powerful identity characteristic.

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